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首页科技书籍自然科学《美国现实主义和自然主义:英文》比泽尔
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《美国现实主义和自然主义:英文》比泽尔

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DONALD PIZERIntroduction: The Problem of DefinitionAnyone seeking, as are the contributors to this volume, to write about American literature between the Civil War and World War I in relation to the literary movements known as reali and naturali faces a twofold initial difficulty. First, there exists a traditional suspicion, often arising from the very attempt to write literary history, of large-scale classifying rubrics. Is there any advantage, one might ask, in conceptualizing the richly diverse expression of this period in terms of such inherent simplification as reali and naturali? A second problem derives from the recent theorizing of literary study. The attraction, for ny theorists, of a deconstructive stance has bred skeptici toward interpretive enterprises that posit such commu-nities of belief and expression as those subsumed under the headings of reali and naturali. And, from a somewhat different theoretical view-point, recent scholars of a New Historicist bent have tended to discount traditional historical divisions in the study of American literature on the ground that they obscure underlying ideological similarities present in all American writing since the Civil War. Yet, as this volume testifies, the effort to describe and understand a histor-ical phase of American writing in terms of jor shared characteristics of that writing continues. At its deepest and probably most significant level of implication, this attempt derives from the same reservoir of hunistic faith which feeds the act of creative expression itself. The artist, putting pen to paper, is expressing a belief in the hun capacity to overcome such ob-stacles to understanding as the existence in all communication acts of un-conscious motive and value in both writer and reader, the inherent ambi-guity of the symbolic expression which is language, and the heartbreaking distinction in hun utterance between intent and effect. He or she does so, despite these difficulties, because of faith in the value of striving to create threads of shared experience and meaning out of the inchoate mix of life. The literary historian, in his or her own way, also functions within this charged field of doubt and faith. Indeed, the literary historian can profit
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